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American Turbine makes 1975 - 1985

The order, in which Turbines are listed below, does not indicate a chronological order.


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Make

Years in production
 

 

US Wind Power Inc.

 

1974 - ?

USW56100
Type:
Model 56-50
56 - 100
-
Rotor Dia. [m]
17
-
-
Rotor r.p.m.
-
-
-
Power [kW]
50
100
300
Power Regulation
Stall
-
-
Blade Make
Own
-
-
Turbines produced
-
> 3727
-

 

Only Turbines installed in the USA listed. ( Turbines also installed in Canada)

Downwind rotor with 3 blades of Fibreglass. The 33M-VS model uses twin generators.

From the company's hand out material in 1983: "U.S. Windpower Inc, organized as a partnership in 1974 in Boston, was incorporated in 1979." Scientific prototypes in the 25 to 30 kW range were developed.

Design and manufacturing: Burlington, Massachusetts. Operations centre: Livermore, California. Corporate office: San Francisco, California.

US Wind Power was a manufacturer of the Turbines as well as a developer of the projects. They did not buy Turbines from other companies and they did not sell Turbines to other companies or projects.

Later the design was known as Kenetech.

 





 

Kenetech

 

198X - 1996

KVS33
Type:
KVS 33
-
-
Rotor Dia. [m]
-
-
-
Rotor r.p.m.
-
-
-
Power [kW]
100
300
500
Power Regulation
-
-
-
Blade Make
Own
-
-
Turbines produced
>> 174
> 112
> 100

 

In 19xx Kenetech claimed that German Wind Turbine manufacturer Enercon was violating a patent hold by Kenetech - (originally by US Windpower).

In May 1996 Kenetech filed for bankruptcy, and Zond Systems acquired a.o. the patent rights.

Zond was later acquired by Enron, and later Enron was acquired by General Electric (GE Wind Power).

In 1994 the California Energy Commission reported 4277 Kenetech Turbines Installed in California with a capacity of 462.3 MW ( average 108 kW). The figures might include US Wind Power models.

 





ESI Inc.

 

197X - ?

ESI54
Type:
ESI-54
ESI-54-S
ESI-80/200
Rotor Dia. [m]
16.5
16.5
24.4
Rotor r.p.m.
77
90
60
Power [kW] *
50(NP75)
63(NP85)
200(NP275)
Power Regulation
Stall
Stall
-
Blade Make
Wood-Epoxy
Wood-Epoxy
Wood-Epoxy
Turbines produced
?
?
?

 

Downwind rotor with 2 blades of laminated wood/epoxy (Gougeon Brothers). Tip vanes for overspeed control.

A 20 kW Turbine was also fabricated.

* NP = Generator Name Plate.

Energy Sciences Incorporated (ESI) was located in Boulder, Colorado. Senior Engineer, Sandy (C.P.) Butterfield.

In 1994 the California Energy Commission reported a rest of 35 ESI Turbines Installed in California with a capacity of 1.8 MW ( average 51 kW)



 

Carter Wind Systems

1976 - ?
Carter25
Type:
Carter 25
Carter 175
Carter 300
Rotor Dia. [m]
9.8
19.8
24
Rotor r.p.m.
-
-
-
Power [kW]
25
175
300
Power Regulation
Stall
Stall
-
Blade Make
Own
Own
-
Turbines produced
?
?
?

 

Carter Wind Systems, Inc of Burkburnett, Texas was lead by Jay Carter. (earlier: Jay Carter Enterprises, Inc)

Blades (2) Downwind: Fibre Glass. Overspeed control: One pitch change. (Inherent design characteristics of spar and blade).

In 1994 the California Energy Commission reported 108 Carter Turbines Installed in California with a capacity of 5.17 MW ( average 48 kW)





 

ENERTECH

198X- ?
Enertech44
Type:
ENERTECH 44
-
-
Rotor Dia. [m]
13.4
-
-
Rotor r.p.m.
53
-
-
Power [kW]
25
-
-
Power Regulation
Stall
-
-
Blade Make
Own
-
-
Turbines produced
?
-
-

 

An early Enertech Turbine was 13 foot diameter and 1.5 kW.

Enertech Wind Systems of Norwich, Vemont

Downwind Turbine. 3 Blades in laminated wood/epoxy. Overspeed control: Tip brakes.

A 40 kW turbine was also planned.

Since the blades are fixed pitch with no twist, the rotor has to be motored up to the proper rpm for cut in.

In 1994 the California Energy Commission reported 469 Enertech Turbines Installed in California with a capacity of 19.0 MW ( average 40 kW)



 

Bergey Windpower Co.

SURVIVOR

197X - ?

BergeyExcel005
Type:
1 kW
-
-
Rotor Dia. [m]
2.8
-
-
Rotor r.p.m.
-
-
-
Power [kW]
1
-
-
Power Regulation
-
-
-
Blade Make
-
-
-
Turbines produced
-
-
-

 

Company lead by wind veteran Mike Bergey.

 




 

Windworks Inc.

 

198X -

Windworker10
Type:
Windworker 10
-
-
Rotor Dia. [m]
10
-
-
Rotor r.p.m.
20 - 45
-
-
Power [kW]
9
-
-
Power Regulation
Pitch
-
-
Blade Make
Own (Aluminium)
-
-
Turbines produced
?
-
-

 

Downwind with multipole permanent magnet alternator.

The extruded aluminium blades had fibreglass tips.

Developed by Windworks Inc. of Mukwonago, Wisconsin.

 

 

 

 

 



 

PM Wind Power

 

198X - ?

PM-Windp
Type:
PM 25
-
-
Rotor Dia. [m]
10.4
-
-
Rotor r.p.m.
27 - 36
-
-
Power [kW]
25
-
-
Power Regulation
Stall
-
-
Blade Make
Own
-
-
Turbines produced
?
-
-

 

Downwind machine. Fibreglass blades (2) - Fibreglass Flexbeam Root. "Designed by aeronautical engineers, specialists in fibreglass helicopter and turboprop blades."

Developed by Production Machinery Corporation of Mentor, Ohio.



 

UTRC

 

198X - ?

Windtech
Type:
UTRC 108
-
-
Rotor Dia. [m]
9.75
-
-
Rotor r.p.m.
-
-
-
Power [kW]
(15)(8)
-
-
Power Regulation
-
-
-
Blade Make
Own
-
-
Turbines produced
?
-
-

 

2 blades of pultruded Fibreglass (Downwind) - Mechanical pitch control by a Flexbeam root, coupled via straps to pendulum weights.

Developed by United Technologies Research Center by M.C. Cheney in period 1975 - 1981. Utilizes Bearingless Rotor Concept developed for Sikorsky Aircraft and now used on their helicopters.

"UTRC has elected, not to pursue commercialization of this design and has released the inventor and developer, M.C. Cheney to form an independent company." This company was the Windtech, Inc. of Glastonbury, Connecticut.

A similar design was later marketed as the American Wind Shark, by International Dynergy, Inc.

 


 

 

Windtech

 

198X - ?

UTRC-WT
Type:
Windtech 20
Windtech 40
Windtech 50
Rotor Dia. [m]
10
14.6
15.2
Rotor r.p.m.
-
-
-
Power [kW]
20
40
50
Power Regulation
-
-
-
Blade Make
Own
Own
Own
Turbines produced
?
?
> 200

 

A 75 kW model with rotor diameter 15.8 m was also designed.

Downwind rotor with 2 blades of pultruded Fibreglass - Mechanical pitch control by a Flexbeam root, coupled via straps to pendulum weights.

Originally developed by M.C. Cheney of United Technologies Research Center in period 1975 - 1981. "Utilizes Bearingless Rotor Concept developed for Sikorsky Aircraft and now used on their helicopters."

"UTRC has elected, not to pursue commercialization of this design and has released the inventor and developer, M.C. Cheney to form an independent company." This company was the Windtech, Inc. of Glastonbury, Connecticut.

A similar design was later marketed as the American Wind Shark, by International Dynergy, Inc.

 



 

American Windshark (Dynergy)

 

198X - ?

Windshark
Type:
American Windshark 80 kW
-
-
Rotor Dia. [m]
16.5
-
-
Rotor r.p.m.
95
-
-
Power [kW]
80
-
-
Power Regulation
-
-
-
Blade Make
Own
-
-
Turbines produced
?
-
-

 

American Windshark was fabricated by Dynergy Systems Corporation, a subsidary of INTERNATIONAL DYNERGY INC. of Palm Springs, California.

Downwind rotor with 2 blades of pultruded Fibreglass - Mechanical pitch control by a Flexbeam root, coupled via straps to pendulum weights.

 

 

 

 



 

WECS-TECH Corporation

 

1980 - ?

Wecs-Tech
Type:
Wecs-Tech 70 kW
Wecs-Tech 1558
-
Rotor Dia. [m]
-
17.7
-
Rotor r.p.m.
-
60
-
Power [kW] *
70
150
-
Power Regulation
-
-
-
Blade Make
Own
Own
-
Turbines produced
?
?
-

 

Downwind rotor with 3 "sail wing type" blades with Aluminium Spars and Dacron cover. V-belt drive from the Gearbox to the Generator .

The WECS-Tech Turbine. According to United Press Int., on November 28th 1981 WECS-Tech of Compton, California was the first company to conclude a Wind Energy Contract with Southern California Edison.

In the high altitudes of the Tehachapi Pass the Sails were weakened by UV-radiation, which helped Mother Nature tear the Rotors apart on these light constructions.

The company offered a 5 year warranty. (!)

Here pictured at Oak Creek in Tehachapi, California (1983)  –

Wecs-Tech Corporation was located at Lawndale, California.

 





 

Fayette Manufacturing

1981- ?
Fayette
Type:
Windway 34-75 IIS
W-
-
Rotor Dia. [m]
10.3
-
-
Rotor r.p.m.
120/80
-
-
Power [kW]
75
-
-
Power Regulation
Stall
-
-
Blade Make
Own GRP+Steel
-
-
Turbines produced
> 100
?
-

 

Downwind Turbine with 3 Fibreglass blades filled with polyurethane foam. Blade Spar in Steel.

Induction generator. More information to come.


Many hundreds of these Turbines looked like white flowers on the hills of the Altamont pass in the early eighties. Developer and manufacturer was John Eckland, who earlier served in the Carter Energy Administration.

In 1994 the California Energy Commission reported 822 Fayette Turbines Installed in California with a capacity of 77.3 MW ( average 94 kW)



 

STORM MASTER

1977- ?
StormMaster
Type:
Storm Master Model 12
-
-
Rotor Dia. [m]
12
-
-
Rotor r.p.m.
132
-
-
Power [kW]
40
-
-
Power Regulation
Stall
-
-
Blade Make
Own GRP
-
-
Turbines produced
?
-
-

 

Earliest model was a 10 m rotor diameter model. First blade had fibreglass shell and foam core.

Downwind Turbine with ultra slim pultruded fibreglass blades.

Produced in San Diego, California.

The STORM MASTER was an "early bird" in the wind farms of Tehachapi and Altamont, California.

After a series of rotor failures, experiments with another rotor type: (Wood blades etc.)

In 1994 the California Energy Commission reported 10 Storm Master Turbines Installed in California with a capacity of 0.4 MW ( average 40 kW)

 





 

FloWind

198X - ?
Flowind
Type:
300 Darrieus
400 Darrieus
AWT-26 (HAWT)
Rotor Dia. [m]
17 x 42
21 x 63
26.2
Rotor r.p.m.
-
-
-
Power [kW]
300
400
-
Power Regulation
-
-
225 - 275
Blade Make
-
-
-
Turbines produced
(510)
(?)
-

 

Most commercial successfull Darrieus Turbine in the US.

FloWind also developed a horizontal axis Turbine, named AWT-26, rated 225 - 275 kW.

 

In 1994 the California Energy Commission reported 510 Flo Wind Turbines Installed in California with a capacity of 94.1 MW ( average 184 kW)

 





 

Hall Machine (Blue Max)

197X- ?
Bluemax
Type:
Blue Max
-
-
Rotor Dia. [m]
-
-
-
Rotor r.p.m.
-
-
-
Power [kW]
50
-
-
Power Regulation
Stall
-
-
Blade Make
Own Aluminium
-
-
Turbines produced
?
-
-

 

Downwind Turbine with extruded aluminiun blades.

Produced in Bakersville, California.

The Blue Max was an "early bird" in the Oak Creek wind farm at Tehachapi, California.

 




 

Grumman Energy Systems Inc.

 

197X - ?

Grumman
Type:
Windstream 33
-
-
Rotor Dia. [m]
10
-
-
Rotor r.p.m.
74
-
-
Power [kW]
15
-
-
Power Regulation
Pitch
-
-
Blade Make
Own (Aluminium)
-
-
Turbines produced
?
-
-

 

Induction generator. Early turbine (1979) had 7.6 m rotor diameter, 3 blades - 15 - 20 kW.

3 extruded aluminium blades with 0° twist. had fibreglass tips.

Developed by Grumman Energy Systems of Ronkonkoma, New York.

 


 

 

WTG Energy Systems Incorp.

 

197X - ?

WTG
Type:
-
-
-
Rotor Dia. [m]
24.4
-
-
Rotor r.p.m.
-
-
-
Power [kW]
200 (250)
-
-
Power Regulation
-
-
-
Blade Make
-
-
-
Turbines produced
?
-
-

This was an upwind Turbine ! A rare configuration - in the early US Wind Turbine landscape.

Induction generator, variable rpm (?).

Developed by WTG Energy Systems Inc. og Angola, New York.

In 1981 WTG entered into a joint venture with Howden of Scotland. WTG were to supply a 250 kW WTG Turbine to the Central Electricity Generating Board, at Carmarthen Bay in South Wales, England. ( In 1982 Howden followed with a "in house" design of their first 200 kW Turbine.

 


 

ELFIN CORPORATION

 

198X- ?

Elfin
Type:
ELFIN 750
-
-
Rotor Dia. [m]
7.5
-
-
Rotor r.p.m.
125 - 145
-
-
Power [kW]
10
-
-
Power Regulation
-
-
-
Blade Make
Own
-
-
Turbines produced
?
-
-

 

Downwind Turbine. 3 Blades in fibreglass/epoxy.

Overspeed control: Pitch contrrol.

Elfin Wind Energy Systems was located in Walinford, Vermont.

 



 

AEROLITE Inc.

 

198X- ?

Aerolite
Type:
A-11
-
-
Rotor Dia. [m]
11
-
-
Rotor r.p.m.
53
-
-
Power [kW]
30
-
-
Power Regulation
-
-
-
Blade Make
Own
-
-
Turbines produced
?
-
-

 

Downwind Turbine. 2 Blades in Sitka spruce composite.

From the brochure: "Blade tips automatically change their pitch to slow rotor. The system is passive, no electric or mechanical actuators are used. Simplicity."

Aerolite Inc was located at Dartmouth, Massachusetts.



 

HEDAN USA Windsystems

 

197X- ?

Hedan
Type:
Model XS
Model XT
-
Rotor Dia. [m]
11
13.4
-
Rotor r.p.m.
-
-
-
Power [kW]
12(Max 20)
16 (Max 25)
-
Power Regulation
-
-
-
Blade Make
Aeroglass E.S.
Aeroglass E.S.
-
Turbines produced
?
?
-

 

Hedan U.S.A. was located at Xenia, Ohio.

Downwind Turbine. 3 Blades in fibreglass. Overspeed control: Pitch control.

A 40 kW turbine was also planned.

Since the blades are fixed pitch with no twist, the rotor has to be motored up to the proper rpm for cut in.

 



 

Kaman Aerospace Corporation

 

1978- ?

Kaman
Type:
Kaman 40 kW
-
-
Rotor Dia. [m]
19.5
-
-
Rotor r.p.m.
69.2
-
-
Power [kW]
40
-
-
Power Regulation
-
-
-
Blade Make
Own
-
-
Turbines produced
?
-
-

 

Kaman, under a NASA contract, designed and fabricated a 47 m long composite blade in 1978. In 1979 Kaman designed and fabricated the two 31.4 m long blades for the 2000 kW NASA MOD-1 Turbine, installed at Boone , North Carolina.

Besides the 40 kW Turbine, that was tested at the DOE Rocky Flats Test Center, Kaman also designed and fabricated a 17 meter diameter Darrieus Turbine, under contract with Sandia Laboratories. This VAWT-Turbine was tested at Albuqurque, New Mexico, with 2- as well as 3-blade configuration.

 

 



 

Aeolian Energy Inc.

197X - ?
Aeolian
Type:
AEO-20
-
-
Rotor Dia. [m]
6.1
-
-
Rotor r.p.m.
95
-
-
Power [kW]
4 (Max 6)
-
-
Power Regulation
Pitch
-
-
Blade Make
Own
-
-
Turbines produced
?
-
-

 

Aeolian Energy was located at Ligonier, Pennsylvania.

Downwind Turbine. 3 Blades in pultruded fibreglass. Overspeed control: Pitch control.

 

 



 

DOE / ALCOA

1980 - ?
 
Type:
DOE/ALCOA VAWT
-
-
Rotor Dia. [m]
16.8 x 25
-
-
Rotor r.p.m.
-
-
-
Power [kW]
100
-
-
Power Regulation
-
-
-
Blade Make
Own
-
-
Turbines produced
?
-
-

 

The DOE/ALCOA Turbine was developed by Sandia Laboratories.

In March 1981 it began operation at US Department of Agriculture Wind Laboratory, as a supplementary source of electric power for an irrigation well.

Blades (2): Extruded Aluminium. Overspeed control: Brake.

 


 

DAF

1976 - ?
DAFIndal
Type:
DAF 4 -VAWT
DAF 40 -VAWT
-
Rotor Dia. [m]
4.6 x 5.5
11.3 x 16.8
-
Rotor r.p.m.
-
67/81/90
-
Power [kW]
4
40
-
Power Regulation
-
-
-
Blade Make
Own
Own
-
Turbines produced
?
?
-

 

DAF Indal Ltd.

Type:
50 kW
230 kW
Series 6400
Rotor Dia. [m]
11.2 x 16.8
36.7 x 24.4
-
Rotor r.p.m.
80
36
-
Power [kW]
50
230
500
Power Regulation
-
-
-
Blade Make
-
-
-
Turbines produced
?
?
?

 

The DAF 4 Stand alone Darrieus Turbine for water pumping was erected at the Alternative Energy Institute of West Texas State University for testing purposes in 1981. The DAF 40 was installed March 1978. Pumping Tests with parallel Diesel Engine were performed. Extruded aluminium blades. Spoilers for overspeed conttrol.

Based at Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, DAF Indal Ltd. worked with Darrieus Turbines since 1976. Turbines in the range from 6 kW, 12 kW, 50 kW, 230 kW to 500 kW were developed.

Pictured the 50 kW and the 500 kW DAF Indal Turbines at Southern California Edison Test center near Palm Springs, California.





 

WINGEN 25

 

1978 - ?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Type:
WINGEN 25
-
-
Rotor Dia. [m]
13.4
-
-
Rotor r.p.m.
-
-
-
Power [kW]
25
-
-
Power Regulation
Pitch control
-
-
Blade Make
Own (Sailwing)
-
-
Turbines produced
-
-
-

 

The WINGEN 25 stand alone Turbine for water pumping was erected at the Alternative Energy Institute of West Texas State University for testing purposes.

In 1979 it was installed at a farm near Tulia Texas with a provision added: When no irrigation was needed, the irrigation pump was disconnected and the induction motor became an induction generator.

Blades (3) Downwind: Aluminium Spars with Dacron cover.

 




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