Winds of change
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European State Projects 1975 - 1995

(Danish Projects included)

Like in the United States, Federal spendings on Wind Power research, in most European Countries were given to major industrial firms like M.A.N., MBB (Messerschmidt-Bölkow-Blohm), Taylor Woodrow, British AeroSpace and VØLUND. The results from these projects were poor, and none of these companies followed the early results with a succesfull commercial Turbine production. A few Turbines though, had a technical standard that was close to, what we consider sound and safe now. But no one dared to invest in those big Turbines back then. The commercial infrastructure was absent. The new Wind Power Industry emerged from companies, that produced small Turbines and grew them bigger as they gained commercial and practical experience.

 

The order, in which Turbines are listed below, does not necessarily indicate a chronological order.

 


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Project / Country

Period

denmark GEDSER / Denmark

1957 - 1967

Gedser

Configuration:
Upwind
Rotor Dia. [m]
24
 
Rotor r.p.m.
30
 
Power [kW]
200
 
Power Regulation
Stall
 
Blade Number
3
 
Blade Material
Steel/Wood/ Alum.
Steel Spar/Wood ribs/ Alu.skin

 

Turbine was erected 1957 at Gedser, south of Sealand/Copenhagen, by SEAS, a utility company.

Engineer Johannes Juul of SEAS, who designed the turbine, was also the leading force behind the involvement of SEAS in Wind Power. Johannes Juul was employed by SEAS from January 1st 1926, at the age og 39, on the conditions that he was allowed to perform independent research in the fields that were possible at the SEAS company.

Before the Gedser machine, he designed and erected The 10 kW Vester Egesborg turbine in 1950 and later - in 1952 the 45 kW Bogø turbine. The final design configuration of the Bogø turbine was close to the Gedser design.

In 1975 Johannes Juul's Gedser turbine design became the starting point of the new Danish generation of Wind Turbines:

3 bladed Rotor :: Upwind Rotor :: Asynchronous Induction Generator directly coupled to the grid :: Stall control :: Tip Ailerons preventing overspeed

denmark NIBE A / Denmark
1979 - xx
Nibe-A
Configuration:
Upwind
Rotor Dia. [m]
40
 
Rotor r.p.m.
34
 
Power [kW]
630
 
Power Regulation
Partial Pitch
Stall / Outboard pitch
Blade Number
3
 
Blade Material
Steel/ GRP
-

 

Inboard 8 m bladepart was not pitchable. Outboard 12 m bladepart had 4 discrete pitch positions. Normal operation was stall-controlled. Rotor supported by stays.

Innerpart blade had a steel spar with GRP blade skin. Outmost 12 m of the blades have filament wound GRP spar with GRP skin.

 

First blade set was cantilever fibreglass blades, made by the VØLUND Company (D-spar) and OL Boats (Blade Skin)

Later the turbine was equipped with laminated wood blades.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

denmark NIBE B / Denmark

 

1980 - xx

Nibe-B
Configuration:
Upwind
Rotor Dia. [m]
40
 
Rotor r.p.m.
34
 
Power [kW]
630
 
Power Regulation
Pitch
Full pitch control
Blade Number
3
 
Blade Material
Fibreglass
Filament wound D-Spar

 

First blade set was cantilever fibreglass blades, made by the VØLUND Company (D-spar) and OL Boats (Blade Skin)

Later the turbine was equipped with laminated wood blades.

germany Growian / Germany

1983 - 1987
growian

Configuration:
Downwind
Rotor Dia. [m]
100
 
Rotor r.p.m.
18.5
 
Power [kW]
3000
 
Power Regulation
Pitch
 
Blade Number
2
 
Blade Material
Steel/GRP
Steel Spar / GRP Skin

 

The Blades had welded steel spars and fibreglass skin.

The GROWIAN Turbine was built by MAN (Nacelle etc.) and MBB (Blades) North West of Hamburg (Cost : $ 55 million). It never completed the test programme, due to numerous severe design faults. Total operation time was 420 hours.  The Turbine was demolished in 1987.

Like the Näsudden Turbine at Swedish Island of Gotland this early Goliath did not need a crane to get the nacelle and blades in position. A special rail system on the Tower was used to elevate the parts to their position.  Just two hundred kilometers south of the Growian - at the same time - German Wind Veteran Aloys Wobben started the successful company ENERCON, still the biggest German Wind Turbine Manufacturer.

 

UK LS 1 / United Kingdom
198x
OrkneyLS1
Configuration:
Upwind
Rotor Dia. [m]
60
 
Rotor r.p.m.
30
 
Power [kW]
3000
 
Power Regulation
Pitch
 
Blade Number
2
 
Blade Material
-
-

 

The project was decided by British Ministry of Energy in 1981.

The turbine was erected at Burgar Hill, Orkney Islands in the Atlantic north of Scotland. The turbine was constructed by Wind Energy Group (WEG) - a Group consisting of Taylor Woodrow Construction Ltd, British Aerospace, GEC and ERA.

 

 

sweden Näsudden I / Sweden

 

1982 - (?)

NasuddenI
Configuration:
Upwind
Rotor Dia. [m]
75
 
Rotor r.p.m.
25
 
Power [kW]
2000
 
Power Regulation
Pitch
 
Blade Number
2
 
Blade Material
Steel/GRP
-

 

Blades had welded steel spar with Leading edge and trailing edge made of Glasfiber Reinforced Plastic.

The nacelle was fabricated by KAMEVA (Karlstads Mekaniska Verkstad of Kristinehamn ). The blades were fabricated by German ERNO GmbH (MBB. (Messerschmidt-Bölkow-Blohm)).

Later the turbine design was marketed as WTS 75-3 by a venture group of Boving KMW turbin AB and KVÆRNER GROUP of Norway. (Hydro Power Station manufacturers)

Still later Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm GmbH marketed the turbine as Aeolus WTS-75

 

 

 

 

 

sweden Maglarp / Sweden

 

1981- 1992

maglarp
Configuration:
Downwind
Rotor Dia. [m]
78
 
Rotor r.p.m.
25
 
Power [kW]
3000
 
Power Regulation
Pitch
 
Blade Number
2
 
Blade Material
Fibreglass
Filament wound

 

Blades were fabricated by Hamilton Standard, USA.

Nacelle fabricated by Karlskronavarvet - (Swedish Shipyard)

Teetering hub. Steel tower.

Karlskronavarvet and Hamilton Standard also fabricated a sister turbine to this: The WTS 4 (4MW) - ordered by the US DOI. This was erected at Medicine Bow, Wyoming USA.

The Maglarp turbine was demolished in 1992.

The industrial venture group - Swedyards - tried to market the WTS 3 and WTS 4, as well as a smaller model named WTS 1200, on the international market. But had no luck.

 

 

 

denmark ELSAM 2 MW / Denmark

 

1989 - 2001

elsam2MW
Configuration:
Upwind
Rotor Dia. [m]
61
 
Rotor r.p.m.
-
 
Power [kW]
2000
 
Power Regulation
Pitch
 
Blade Number
3
 
Blade Material
Fibreglass
Danish Wind Technology A/S

 

Blade The 2MW  ELSAM Test Turbine at Tjæreborg, was in operation from 1989. Tower was made in concrete. In 2001 the Turbine was demolished by explosion, and the location used for a modern Vestas V80 2 MW  Turbine.

 

 

sweden Näsudden II / Sweden

 

1993 -

NasuddenII
Configuration:
Upwind
Rotor Dia. [m]
80
 
Rotor r.p.m.
14/21
 
Power [kW]
3000
 
Power Regulation
Pitch
 
Blade Number
2
 
Blade Material
Fibreglass
-

 

Name: WTS 80-3/1 (Prototype) was built by Kværner Turbin AB for Swedish State owned utility company Vattenfall.

 

 

 

 

Italy Gamma 60 / Italy

 

1992 -

Gamma60
Configuration:
Upwind
Rotor Dia. [m]
60
 
Rotor r.p.m.
-
 
Power [kW]
1500
 
Power Regulation
Active yaw!
 
Blade Number
2
 
Blade Material
-
-

 

Installed at Alta Nurra, Sardinia by WEST S.p.A in 1992.

 

Nederland Medemblik / TheNederlands

 

1985 -

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Configuration:
Upwind
Rotor Dia. [m]
45
 
Rotor r.p.m.
-
 
Power [kW]
1000
 
Power Regulation
Pitch
 
Blade Number
2
 
Blade Material
-
-

 

Installed at Medemblik in 1985 by company NEWECS.

Germany Aeolus II / Germany

 

1992 -

AeolusII
Configuration:
Upwind
Rotor Dia. [m]
75
 
Rotor r.p.m.
-
 
Power [kW]
3000
 
Power Regulation
Pitch
 
Blade Number
2
 
Blade Material
-
-

 

Installed by M.A.N. Technologie GmbH. Blade fabricated by Messerschmidt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) - Nacelle fabricated by Kværner Turbin AB of Sweden.

 

Nederland Nedwind 50 / Nederlands

 

1991 -

Nedwind50-Spijk
Configuration:
Upwind
Rotor Dia. [m]
52.6
 
Rotor r.p.m.
24.6
 
Power [kW]
1000
 
Power Regulation
Pitch
 
Blade Number
2
 
Blade Material
-
-

 

Fabricated and Installed at Spijk by Nedwind B.V.

4 generators of each 250 kW.

Spain AWEC 60 / Spain

 

1992 -

AWEC60
Configuration:
Upwind
Rotor Dia. [m]
60
 
Rotor r.p.m.
-
 
Power [kW]
1200
 
Power Regulation
Pitch
 
Blade Number
3
 
Blade Material
-
-

 

Fabricated and installed at Capo Villano in Galicia by Union Fenosa.

   
   
More Turbines from UK, The Nederlands, Italy, France and a few other countries will be added.


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